I could be wrong but as child themes exist for 2014 and its easy to make another version, then unless you plan to make drastic differences to it then I would be 99% sure it wouldn’t get accepted.
You mean “missing stylesheet”? If so you are probably uploading the whole download and not just the theme folder OR it is not a WP theme
I doubt you would get away with that plus I am not sure why you would do that over creating a proper stand alone theme?
Aside from nearly 50 validation errors, the typography,spacing and margins could be improved and as a design it does not really offer anything that is not be done here quite a bit before
I oculd be wrong but I thought it was ok. I guess your primary concern is to get them accepted then worry about the home page.
Any theme which is approved so all of them potentially
While you should have two copies for this – the setup on the second one is broken you need to reinstall WordPress
Needs much more to it especially something different from the other hundreds of one page site son here and also typography needs attention